Triassic period («triad» in Greek) — is the Mesozoic era period, between 250 and 202 million years ago. The name «three» was given because of Western European rock deposits backdated to that time, including shell-limestone, caper and sandstone.
Before the Triassic period, all continents formed a single giant continent Pangea. Later it started to split, inland seas became shallower and arid areas expanded.
Soon after split the great dinosaur age started. Argentina hosted most of early inhabitants: terrestrial Eoraptor, Coelophysis, and Plateosaurus, flying Eudimorphodon and Preondactylus. The primitive Archosaurs Desmatosuchus and Postosuchus were already on the brink of extinction. Huge aquatic Mastodontosaurus and Cryostega were also fading away.
The Jurassic period started just after Triassic and lasted 56 million years. It began 200 million years ago and ended 144 million years ago. The period was named after the Jura mountains in Switzerland and France where first fossils were recovered. It deserves to be called the most famous Mezozoic era period. The known Africa, Australia, Antarctica, North and South America shapes started to form. The climate turned more humid compared to the Triassic period thus enhancing flora and fauna.
“Jurassic Park” movie deserved its name as that period was home for the most well-known dinosaurs. The lush vegetation blooming sparkled herbivorous Sauropods to thrive. Predators had plenty of fleshy feed as well. Dinosaurs inhabited all over the place: terrestrial and aquatic area. Some were the size of a cat or chicken, while others were the size of huge whales. First soaring Pterodactylus and Rhamphorhynchus raised into the air, various insects’ species inhabited bushlands and rainforests.
The Cretaceous period is the third and the final Mesozoic Era period, lasting from 145 to 65 million years ago for about 80 million years.
Emerging flowering plants enhanced the growing insect like bees and butterflies species number to pollinate it. Plants evolved rapidly and the dinosaur world reached its diversity peak exactly during the Cretaceous period.
The ancient continents continued to keep splitting forming the known ones. When North Laurasia and South Gondwana fell apart, Eurasia and North America were shaped first, later South America, Africa, India, and Australia took on. The Atlantic Ocean was getting bigger and the climate turned a bit cooler. The poles started to experience snowfalls. With all said it led to the great flora and fauna diverse evolvement in different parts of the world.
Unfortunately, the Jurassic giant Diplodocus and Stegosaurus disappeared and replaced by emerging Triceratops, Ankylosaurus, and Iguanodons.
The largest airborne creatures Archaeopteryx and Quetzalcoatl emerged during the Cretaceous period as well. Pterosaurs got bird contenders ready to take the place of flying reptiles. Since that time reptiles and birds had to coexist. First lizards and snakes also showed up. Huge 17-metre mosasaurs roamed the oceans alongside with much more known turtles.
Cenozoic is the current era following the mass extinction of dinosaurs in preceding Mesozoic Era. It began 66 million years ago and lasts until the present day. Cenozoic Era is divided into three periods: Paleogene, Neogene and Anthropogene (Quaternary).
The continents shaped known configuration and geographic positioning during Cenozoic. North and South America consolidated, Australia and New Guinea drifted to South-east Asia having split from Gondwana, which finally broke-up. Antarctica remained centred on the South Pole and extremely cooled. The Mediterranean mountains and Pacific region mountain ranges and islands showed up. Large mineral deposits such as oil, gold and gas were also formed. Flora and fauna evolved toward present known. Thus, grasses began to spread, coniferous, broad-leaves forests and flowering plants blossomed, banana and breadfruit trees sprouted, savanna and prairie areas expanded. Various insects population increased, new birds species emerged, living horses and cats ancestors grew in numbers, corals and mussels grew in the seas all over the Earth.
Cenozoic climate cycles that changed from warm to extremely cold eventually leading to mass extinction of such species as woolly mammoths and saber-toothed cats (smilodons). This period also gave boost to placental mammals such as primates. Cenozoic era was marked by the first sapient life presented by humans whose activity, including anthropogenic environment impact, continues to change the life of modern-day Earth until now.